Århus-forskere frikender sprøjtegifte for væsentlig indflydelse på biodiversiteten

I et notat til Danmarks Naturfredningsforening hævder de to Århus-forskere, Bettina Nygaard og Rasmus Ejrnæs, at landbrugets anvendelse af sprøjtegifte kun har marginal betydning for biodiversiteten. På opfordring er forskerne dog ikke i stand til at dokumentere den opsigtsvækkende påstand, men henviser til upublicerede observationer, der er foretaget af unavngivne medarbejdere i Miljøstyrelsen.

Seniorforsker Bettina Nygaard

Notatet har titlen ”Hvad skal der til for at opnå gunstig bevaringsstatus efter Habitatdirektivet og standse tab af biodiversitet i Danmark?”

Mod betaling har Danmarks Naturfredningsforening bestilt de to forskere til at besvare to konkrete spørgsmål vedr. habitatdirektivet og Danmarks biodiversitet generelt. Spørgsmålene lød: ”Danmark er forpligtet af Habitatdirektivet, men alligevel er der ugunstig bevarings-status for de fleste habitattyper og arter. Hvad er de vigtigste og mest omkostningseffektive indsatser for at opnå gunstig bevaringsstatus for de terrestriske habitatnatur-typer og arter, og biodiversiteten generelt, ud fra det nuværende vidensgrundlag? Er der habitatnaturtyper, hvor supplerende udpegninger og/eller genopretning af arealer med naturtypen er vigtige eller nødvendige for at opnå gunstig bevaringsstatus?”

I svarnotatet, der er dateret 31. oktober 2019, opremser de to forskere en række velkendte trusler mod naturtyperne og deres biodiversitet. Som hovedårsagen til den ugunstige tilstand fremhæves næringspåvirkning og forsuring, mangel på dynamiske processer samt afvanding og mangel på store træer, dødt ved, blomstrende urter og vedplanter m.m.

Seniorforsker Rasmus Ejrnæs

Efter denne opremsning hedder det i notatet, at ”der kan være andre trusler mod biodiversiteten end de som er nævnt ovenfor – eksempelvis miljøfremmede stoffer, herunder sprøjtegifte, invasive arter eller klimaforandringer. Endvidere kan der være meget specifikke trusler mod enkeltarter – eksempelvis prædation eller fragmenterede bestande. Der er dog ingen af disse trusler som i dag tilnærmelsesvis har samme betydning for Danmarks biodiversitet som de ovenfor nævnte.”

Ganske opsigtsvækkende fastslår de to forskere, at sprøjtegifte ikke ”tilnærmelsesvis” udgør en trussel mod biodiversiteten.

Svidningsskader eller ej

Redaktionen har anmodet notatets forfattere om dokumentation for denne påstand om sprøjtegiftenes marginale betydning i form af links til videnskabelige undersøgelser med denne konklusion. Seniorrådgiver Bettina Nygaard svarede i en mail 5. december bl.a.:

”Vi har vurderet, at sprøjtegifte er af mindre betydning for de lysåbne naturtypers strukturer og funktioner i fht næringsstoffer, manglende forstyrrelser, afvanding og blomster. Denne vurdering er blandt andet baseret på resultaterne fra MSTs kortlægning af habitatnaturtyperne inden for habitatområderne (gennemført i 2016-2018), hvor de har besigtiget knap 20.000 naturlokaliteter og registreret om der er tydelige tegn på randpåvirkning fra sprøjtning på naboarealerne. På 94 % af de kortlagte arealerne er der ikke fundet tegn på sprøjtning i randzonen og på 3,2 % af arealerne er der fundet en randpåvirkning der dækker mere end 10 % af naturforekomsten. Disse opgørelser er endnu ikke publiceret, men udkommer som en NOVANA rapport i efteråret 2020.”

Sådan kan svidningsskader fra sprøjtegifte se ud på bræmmerne langs et mindre vandløb. Om der også er sket skader på fisk og faunaen af invertebrater, kan næppe afgøres ud fra den røde farves ustrækning, men sandsynligheden taler for det. Privatfoto.

Hvad angår dokumentationen af denne meget sparsomme negative påvirkninger fra sprøjtegifte, henviser Bettina Nygaard til den tekniske anvisning på metoden, der er anvendt af Miljøstyrelsen ved registreringen af de knap 20.000 naturlokaliteter. Anvisningen er udarbejdet i 2016 af Bettina Nygaard selv sammen med kollegerne Rasmus Ejrnæs og Jesper Fredshavn, alle fra samme institution på Aarhus Universitet. Vedrørende sprøjtegifte hedder det blot:

”I felten vurderes arealandelen direkte op til dyrket mark, hvor der forekommer sprøjteskader som følge af afdrift fra naboarealerne. Data registreres i de fem kategorier:

1) 0 %

2) 1-10 %

3) 10-25%

4) 25-50%

5) 50-100 %.”

Angiveligt er der på 94 % af de kortlagte arealer ikke konstateret tegn på sprøjtning i randzonen, og på 3,2 % af arealerne er der fundet en randpåvirkning, der dækker mere end 10 % af naturarealet. På dette grundlag synes forskerne at kunne konkludere, at når der ikke er noteret svidningsskader på vegetationen, så forekommer der ingen skader på biodiversiteten som sådan. Det er tilsyneladende på dette overfladiske grundlag, at de to Aarhus-forskere konkluderer, at sprøjtegifte ikke ”tilnærmelsesvis” udgør en trussel mod biodiversiteten.

Andre biodiversitetsforskere, som redaktionen har talt med, fremhæver en lang række internationale videnskabelige arbejder, der dokumenterer sprøjtegiftenes dybe negative påvirkning på biodiversiteten.

Professor Dave Goulson, University of Sussex. Foto: Wikipedia

Flere forskere finder det uforståeligt, at notatet ikke med et eneste ord nævner påvirkningen på padder, krybdyr og fisk samt den helt afgørende gruppe af invertebrater, insekterne, der kan være særdeles følsomme for sprøjtegifte, som det blev fastslået af ledende, internationale forskere allerede i 2014 og sidenhen påvist mange gange f.eks. af den anerkendte professor i biologi ved University of Sussex Dave Goulson i artiklen: ”Rapid rise in toxic load for bees revealed by analysis of pesticide use in Great Britain” fra 2018.

Også det internationalt anerkendte videnskabstidsskrift National Geographic har fornylig dokumenteret sammenhængen mellem sprøjtegifte og den svindende biodiversitet i form af fuglebestandenes kollaps i artiklen ”Huge decline in songbirds linked to common insecticide”. I den tyske forbundsregering rystede miljøminister Svenja Schulze heller ikke på hånden, da hun i september i år lancerede regeringens ”Action Programme for Insect Protection” til 100 mio. Euro om året. Programmet er entydigt rettet mod sprøjtegiftene, hvor bl.a. glyphosat vil blive forbudt fra 2023.

Miljøminister Svenja Schulze, BRD. Foto: Wikipedia

Kun dansk viden

Bettina Nygaard forsvarer overraskende nok notatets konklusion med disse ord: ”Den videnskabelige litteratur på området er meget sparsom og vi er ikke bekendt med, at der findes studier med dokumenterede pesticideffekter af kernenaturområder.”

Tilsyneladende er der ikke enighed mellem de to forskere om den sparsomme videnskabelige litteratur. I en mail af 8. december skriver seniorrådgiver Rasmus Ejrnæs bl.a.:

”Når der ikke er tale om et videnskabeligt review med referencer til den videnskabelige litteratur skyldes det dels DN’s ønske om en hurtig besvarelse og dels emnets enorme omfang. Vi har derfor besvaret henvendelsen ved at citere de vigtigste danske publikationer som har den nødvendige bredde til at kunne besvare de stillede spørgsmål. Og så har vi naturligvis trukket på vores mangeårige forskningserfaring samt på den empiriske evidens fra det nationale overvågningsprogram samt analyser og rapportering fra dette.”

Notatets kildeliste rummer 16 titler, der alle er danske, og hvor Rasmus Ejrnæs er forfatter eller medforfatter til 13 af de 16, mens Bettina Nyberg er medforfatter på tre artikler. Ingen af de nævnte artikler belyser dog sprøjtegiftenes negative virkning på biodiversiteten.

Det fremgår af notatet, at Danmarks Naturfredningsforening har haft mulighed for at kommentere et udkast til teksten, og i den forbindelse efterspurgte en uddybning af dele af notatet. Den efterspurgte uddybning har givet anledning til enkelt præcisering, men derudover er besvarelsen af opgaven fastholdt, skriver de to forfattere.

Opgaven er finansieret af Danmarks Naturfredningsforening, oplyses det, men hverken Bettina Nygaard, Rasmus Ejrnæs eller Danmarks Naturfredningsforening har kunnet oplyse beløbets størrelse inden redaktionens afslutning.

Comments

comments

4 kommentarer til Århus-forskere frikender sprøjtegifte for væsentlig indflydelse på biodiversiteten

  • Peter Henriksen skriver:

    Ikke særligt overbevisende.

  • Thomas skriver:

    Det kører virkelig for Århus-forskerne for tiden. Her er nogle videnskabelige studier omhandlende glyphosat.

    “Pesticides constitute a major anthropogenic addition to natural communities. In aquatic communities, a great majority of pesticide impacts are determined from singlespecies experiments conducted under laboratory conditions. Although this is an essential protocol to rapidly identify the direct impacts of pesticides on organisms, it prevents an assessment of direct and indirect pesticide effects on organisms embedded in their natural ecological contexts. In this study, I examined the impact of four globally common pesticides (two insecticides, carbaryl [Sevin] and malathion; two herbicides, glyphosate [Roundup] and 2,4-D) on the biodiversity of aquatic communities containing algae and 25 species of animals. Species richness was reduced by 15% with Sevin, 30% with malathion, and 22% with Roundup, whereas 2,4-D had no effect. Both insecticides reduced zooplankton diversity by eliminating cladocerans but not copepods (the latter increased in abundance). The insecticides also reduced the diversity and biomass of predatory insects and had an apparent indirect positive effect on several species of tadpoles, but had no effect on snails. The two herbicides had no effects on zooplankton, insect predators, or snails. Moreover, the herbicide 2,4-D had no effect on tadpoles. However, Roundup completely eliminated two species of tadpoles and nearly exterminated a third species, resulting in a 70% decline in the species richness of tadpoles. This study represents one of the most extensive experimental investigations of pesticide effects on aquatic communities and offers a comprehensive perspective on the impacts of pesticides when nontarget organisms are examined under ecologically relevant conditions.”

    Rick A. Relyea, The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities, Ecological Applications, 15(2), 2005 pp. 618-627. http://www.whyy.org/91FM/ybyg/relyea2005.pdf

    “Pesticides are the main environmental factor associated with the etiology of human neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that the treatment of rats with low doses of dimethoate, zineb or glyphosate alone or in combination induces oxidative stress (OS) in liver and brain. The aim of the present work was to investigate if the pesticide-induced OS was able to affect brain and liver cell survival. The treatment of Wistar rats with the pesticides (i.p. 1/250 LD50, three times a week for 5 weeks) caused loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and cardiolipin content, especially in substantia nigra (SN), with a concomitant increase of fatty acid peroxidation. The activation of calpain apoptotic cascade (instead of the caspase-dependent pathway) would be responsible for the DNA fragmentation pattern observed. Thus, these results may contribute to understand the effect(s) of chronic and simultaneous exposure to pesticides on cell survival.”

    Astiz M, de Alaniz MJ, Marra CA. (2009) Effect of pesticides on cell survival in liver and brain rat tissues. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. Oct;72(7):2025-32.

    “Glyphosate concentration corresponding to the 96h LC value for juvenile C. gariepinus was used to study the effects of 5O glyphosate exposures in inducing histopathological changes of gills, liver, kidney and brain. In the gills, cellular infiltrations were observed. In the liver there was fatty degeneration, severe fat vacuolation, diffuse hepatic necrosis and darkly stained specks of necrotic nuclei and infiltration of leukocytes. In kidney there was haematopoietic necrosis and severe pyknotic nuclei. The brain showed mononuclear infiltration, neuronal degeneration and spongiosis. These changes occurred predominantly in the 96h exposure. Respiratory stress, erratic swimming and death of fish were observed in exposed fish which varies with the concentration of the toxicant and its showed that mortality increased with increasing in concentration. Glyphosate is toxic to juvenile fish. C. gariepinus are more susceptible to herbicide, therefore their use on/near fish farm or in areas close to aquatic environment should be discouraged.”

    Ayoola, S. O. (2008) Histopathological Effects of Glyphosate on Juvenile African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus). American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 4, no. 3 362-67. http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes4(3)/14.pdf

    “This 54-year-old man accidentally sprayed himself with the chemical agent glyphosate, a herbicide derived from the amino acid glycine. He developed disseminated skin lesions 6 hours after the accident. One month later, he developed a symmetrical parkinsonian syndrome. Two years after the initial exposure to glyphosate, magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense signal in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, bilaterally, on T2-weighted images. Levodopa/benserazide 500/125 mg daily provided satisfactory clinical outcome.”

    Barbosa ER, Leiros da Costa MD, Bacheschi LA, Scaff M, Leite CC. (2001) Parkinsonism after glycine-derivate exposure. Mov Disord. May;16(3):565-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11391760

    “We demonstrated that glyphosate possesses tumor promoting potential in mouse skin carcinogenesis…”

    Jasmine George and Yogeshwer Shukla (2013), Emptying of Intracellular Calcium Pool and Oxidative Stress Imbalance are associated with the Glyphosate-induced Proliferation in Human Skin Keratinocytes HaCaT Cells. ISRN Dermatology vol. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/825180

    “Glyphosate is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide and it is believed to be less toxic than other pesticides. However, several recent studies showed its potential adverse health effects to humans as it may be an endocrine disruptor. This study focuses on the effects of pure glyphosate on estrogen receptors (ERs) mediated transcriptional activity and their expressions. (..) These results indicated that low and environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate possessed estrogenic activity. Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used for soybean cultivation, and our results also found that there was an additive estrogenic effect between glyphosate and genistein, a phytoestrogen in soybeans. However, these additive effects of glyphosate contamination in soybeans need further animal study.”

    Thongprakaisang S, Thiantanawat A, Rangkadilok N, Suriyo T, Satayavivad J, Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors, Food Chemistry Toxicology 2013 Sep;59:129-36.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23756170

    “…These results suggested that glyphosate may interfere with uptake and retranslocation of Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn, most probably by binding and thus immobilizing them. The decreases in seed concentration of Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg by glyphosate are very specific, and may affect seed quality.”

    Çakmak, İsmail and Yazıcı, M. Atilla and Tutuş, Yusuf and Öztürk, Levent (2009) Glyphosate reduced seed and leaf concentrations of calcium, manganese, magnesium, and iron in non-glyphosate resistant soybean. European Journal of Agronomy, 31 (3 Sp. Iss. SI). pp. 114-119. ISSN 1161-0301 http://research.sabanciuniv.edu/13147/

    “Herbicides have been recognized as the main environmental factor associated with human neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease(PD). Previous studies indicated that the exposure to glyphosate, a widely used herbicide, is possibly linked to Parkinsonism, however the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the neurotoxic effects of glyphosate in differentiated PC12 cells and discovered that it inhibited viability of differentiated PC12 cells in dose-and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, the results showed that glyphosate induced cell death via autophagy pathways in addition to activating apoptotic pathways. Interestingly, deactivation of Beclin-1 gene attenuated both apoptosis and autophagy in glyphosate treated differentiated PC12 cells, suggesting that Beclin-1 gene is involved in the crosstalk between the two mechanisms.”

    Wang, Wang, Chen, Gui, Fan, Glyphosate induced cell death through apoptotic and autophagic mechanisms, Neurotoxicological Teratology, 2012 May-June.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22504123

    “This study demonstrated that Roundup Ready GM-soy may have high residue levels of glyphosate and AMPA, and also that different agricultural practices may result in a markedly different nutritional composition of soybeans. In the present study organic soybean samples had a more profitable nutritional profile than industrial conventional and GM soybeans. We argue that pesticide residues should have been a part of the compositional analyses of herbicide tolerant GM plants from the beginning. Lack of data on pesticide residues in major crop plants is a serious gap of knowledge with potential consequences for human and animal health. We therefore recommend (i) increased effort on sampling and testing crop material from the market; (ii) testing for possible dose–response effects of chemical residues in long-term feeding studies; (iii) inclusion of pesticide residue measurements and safety testing in the regulatory system for risk-assessment and (iv) further research on the indirect ecological effects of herbicides and pesticides, i.e., on ecological interactions in the soil community with possible effects on nutrient uptake and plant composition.”

    T. Bøhn et al, Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: Glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans, Food Chemistry Volume 153.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814613019201

    “During the last 10-15 years, an increase of Clostridium botulinum associated diseases in cattle has been observed in Germany. The reason for this development is currently unknown. The normal intestinal microflora is a critical factor in preventing intestinal colonisation by C. botulinum as shown in the mouse model of infant botulism. Numerous bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) produce bacteriocines directed against C. botulinum and other pathogens: Lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB) such as lactobacilli, lactococci and enterococci, generate bacteriocines that are effective against Clostridium spp. A reduction of LAB in the GIT microbiota by ingestion of strong biocides like glyphosate could be an explanation for the observed increase in levels of C. botulinum associated diseases. In the present paper, we report on the toxicity of glyphosate to the most prevalent Enterococcus spp. in the GIT. Ingestion of this herbicide could be a significant predisposing factor that is associated with the increase in C. botulinum mediated diseases in cattle”

    Krüger et al., Glyphosate suppresses the antagonistic effect of Enterococcus spp. on Clostridium botulinum, Anaerobe 2013 Apr;20:74-8
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23396248

    “The use of glyphosate modifies the environment which stresses the living microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the real impact of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro. The presented results evidence that the highly pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella Entritidis, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum are highly resistant to glyphosate. However, most of beneficial bacteria as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus spp. were found to be moderate to highly susceptible. Also Campylobacter spp. were found to be susceptible to glyphosate. A reduction of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract microbiota by ingestion of glyphosate could disturb the normal gut bacterial community. Also, the toxicity of glyphosate to the most prevalent Enterococcus spp. could be a significant predisposing factor that is associated with the increase in C. botulinum-mediated diseases by suppressing the antagonistic effect of these bacteria on clostridia. ”

    Krüger et al., The effect of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro., Current Microbiology 2013 Apr;66(4):350-8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23224412

    “Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup®, is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat. Glyphosate’s inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is an overlooked component of its toxicity to
    mammals. CYP enzymes play crucial roles in biology, one of which is to detoxify xenobiotics. Thus, glyphosate enhances the damaging effects of other food borne chemical residues and environmental toxins. Negative impact on the body is insidious and manifests slowly over time as inflammation damages cellular systems throughout the body. Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. We explain the documented effects of glyphosate and its ability to induce disease, and we show that glyphosate is the “textbook example” of exogenous semiotic entropy: the disruption of homeostasis by environmental toxins.”

    Anthony Samsel, Stephanie Seneff, Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases, Entropy 2013, 15, 1416-146. http://www.permaculturenews.org/files/entropy-15-01416.pdf

    “Pesticides associated to genetically modified foods (PAGMF), are engineered to tolerate herbicides such as glyphosate (GLYP) and gluphosinate (GLUF) or insecticides such as the bacterial toxin bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between maternal and fetal exposure, and to determine exposure levels of GLYP and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphoric acid (AMPA), GLUF and its metabolite 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and Cry1Ab protein (a Bt toxin) in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Blood of thirty pregnant women (PW) and thirty-nine nonpregnant women (NPW) were studied. Serum GLYP and GLUF were detected in NPW and not detected in PW. Serum 3-MPPA and CryAb1 toxin were detected in PW, their fetuses and NPW. This is the first study to reveal the presence of circulating PAGMF in women with and without pregnancy, paving the way for a new field in reproductive toxicology including nutrition and utero-placental toxicities.”

    Aris & Leblanc, Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Reproductive Toxicology, 2011 May;31(4):528-33.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21338670

    “The aim of this study was to assess the teratogenicity of the herbicide glyphosate-Roundup (as commercialized in Brazil) to Wistar rats. Dams were treated orally with water or 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg glyphosate from day 6 to 15 of pregnancy. Cesarean sections were performed on day 21 of pregnancy, and number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, living and dead fetuses, and resorptions were recorded. Weight and gender of the fetuses were determined, and fetuses were examined for external malformations and skeletal alterations. The organs of the dams were removed and weighed. Results showed a 50%, mortality rate for dams treated with 1000 mg/kg glyphosate. Skeletal alterations were observed in 15.4, 33.1, 42.0 and 57.3% of fetuses from the control, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg glyphosate groups, respectively. We may conclude that glyphosate-Roundup is toxic to the dams and induces developmental retardation of the fetal skeleton.”

    Dallegrave E, Mantese FD, Coelho RS, Pereira JD, Dalsenter PR, Langeloh A. The teratogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate-Roundup in Wistar rats, Toxicology Letters 2003 Apr 30;142
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12765238

    “Glyphosate is the active ingredient and polyoxyethyleneamine is the surfactant present in the herbicide Roundup formulation commercialized in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the reproductive effects of glyphosate-Roundup on male and female offspring of Wistar rats exposed during pregnancy and lactation. Dams were treated orally with water or 50, 150 or 450 mg/kg glyphosate during pregnancy (21-23 days) and lactation (21 days). These doses do not correspond to human exposure levels. The results showed that glyphosate-Roundup did not induce maternal toxicity but induced adverse reproductive effects on male offspring rats: a decrease in sperm number per epididymis tail and in daily sperm production during adulthood, an increase in the percentage of abnormal sperms and a dose-related decrease in the serum testosterone level at puberty, and signs of individual spermatid degeneration during both periods. There was only a vaginal canal-opening delay in the exposed female offspring. These findings suggest that in utero and lactational exposure to glyphosate-Roundup may induce significant adverse effects on the reproductive system of male Wistar rats at puberty and during adulthood.”

    Dallegrave et al., Pre- and postnatal toxicity of the commercial glyphosate formulation in Wistar rats. Archives of Toxicology 2007 Sep;81(9):665-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17634926

  • Jens Tikær Andersen skriver:

    Jeg har tidligere været stolt af at være uddannet som biolog ved Aarhus Universitet. Det er jeg ikke mere. Nu er jeg flov.

  • Stig Jørgensen skriver:

    Kom til at tænke på Holbergs “Jean de France” eller bedre “Jean de Aarhus”
    Er Jeronimus blevet omvendt og køber dette “makværk” ?

Skriv et svar

Din e-mailadresse vil ikke blive publiceret. Krævede felter er markeret med *

Kjeld Hansen, forfatter, journalist, foredragsholder, debattør, landmand

Kjeld Hansen

Debattør, foredragsholder
Forfatter, journalist
Mail til Kjeld Hansen

fra_mark_og_stald

Dettabteland_E-bog

Det tabte land
- nu som E-bog!

Danmark betaler i disse år af på en gigantisk miljøgæld, der stammer fra årene 1940 til 1970. Aldrig tidligere i Danmarkshistorien er så mange vandløb lagt i rør eller rettet ud, så mange moser tilintetgjort og så mange enge og søer udtørret og kultiveret. Alt sammen betalt af de almindelige skatteydere - som i dag må betale for genoprettelsen af skaderne.

Det tabte land er Kjeld Hansens storstilede afdækning af kampen om den danske natur og den dramatiske forarmelse af den de seneste 250 år, en periode hvor landskabet ændret sig mere end gennem de 10.000 år, der gik forud. Hvordan gik det til, hvem gjorde det, hvad drev dem, hvor kom pengene fra - og kunne det overhovedet betale sig?

Det tabte land gennemgår kritisk denne store historie på baggrund af Kjeld Hansens omfattende research gennem flere år. Den ser ikke bare på hovedaktørerne - staten, Hedeselskabet og Danmarks Naturfrednings-forening - men også på de mange andre deltagere i spillet: brutale liberalister, naive naturelskere, nazister, lykkeriddere og alvorsfulde nyttemænd.

Det tabte land udkom på Gads Forlag i 2008, og trods et 2. oplag har bogen været udsolgt i mere end et år. Nu kan den imidlertid købes som E-bog.